From the editors
CULTURE IN A "FOREIGN" SPACE: AN INTRODUCTION
TO GENIUS LOCI KALININGRAD AND KOENIGSBERG
KALININGRAD IN THE YEAR 2020 - A NOT QUITE FICTITIOUS CONVERSATION
DESTINATION - KALININGRAD
FROM KALININGRAD DICTIONARY
MAP OF THE CITY
FORMA URBIS. SYMBOLIC PARALLELS
IN OR OUT
THE RAILWAY STATION AND ENTRANCE TO THE CITY OF KALININGRAD
BINARY STATES OF "K" CITY
Eugeny Umansky, Karpenko-Karpenko
IN THE CENTER
Andrei Monastyrsky, Sabina Haensgen
EMPTY CENTER K.
FOLLOWING SILENT WORDS
FA+ (Ingrid Falk & Gustavo Aguerre)
THE MYTHICAL FOUNDATION OF KALININGRAD
PRETERITION: KNEIPHOF ISLAND
THE BRIDGES AND "THE PREGEL'S ODOR"
John Craig Freeman, Greg Ulmer
IMAGING KALININGRAD: THE SEVEN BRIGES OF KOENIGSBERG
FORGOTTEN KANT AND THE KANT-BRAND IN KOENIGSBERG
KANT'S BRIDES: A READYMADE PHOTOGRAPHIC CHRONOTOPE
THE CATHEDRAL AND KANT FOR EVERYONE, OR IS GOD FEARSOME WITHOUT MORAL
THE CASTLE OF SOVIETS
THE ROYAL CASTLE
A WHITE SEAGULL ABOVE THE CITY: THE SYMBOLS OF THE OLD NEW CITY
WRITING OF DREAMS
LIGHT UP DOM SOVETOV
THE HOUSE OF SOVIETS
THE MOST PROFOUND SECRET OF ONE KOENIGSBERG LAWYER: HOFFMANN
A LEGEND ABOUT FIVE LITTLE ULRICHEN AND FERRYMAN ANDRE
KOENIGSBERG-KALININGRAD. THE TASTE OF MARZIPAN
THE COUNTRY OF PENSIONERS - OR THE GERMANS
CONCRETE ELEMENTS OF KALININGRAD
THE UNDREAMED OF CITY
TOWN PLANNING MATHEMATICS
MOSKOVSKII PROSPECT & THE SHADOWS AROUND ALTSTADT
OUR TOWER Ivan Chechot
THE TOWER-REDAN "KRONPRINZ"
THE KRONPRINZ TOWER. Projects for the National Centre for Contemporary Arts by Students of the Institute for Theory and Design in Architecture (Braunschweig, Germany)
THE AMBER ROOM
BASTIONS IN DIAMONDS AND EMERALDS
THE HOUSE OF MACHINERY: THE RECONSTRACTION AND EXPLOITATION OF THE POPULATION
V.I.P. (Very Interesting Person)
PLACE OF EXECUTION
TRACES OF A VIRTUAL HISTORY IN A VERY REAL CITY
CHRIST THE SAVIOR CATHEDRAL
LIFE AND EGGS (A sketch about trams)
A STROLL THROUGH THE CENTER
IN THE FLOW: FOUNTAIN SEASON
WILD WEST OF RUSSIA
ANIMALS IN KALININGRAD AND A MOSAIC
KOENIGSBERG'S SPIRITUAL HERITAGE IN TONS, ITEMS AND SACKS. From the history of lost and found cultural heritage
WE ALL ARE GOING TO BE THERE
MONUMENT TO 1200 GUARDSMEN IN KALININGRAD
MATTER AND SPIRIT
FRAGMENT OF A SYMPHONY FOR SLOW READING: IVANOV AND HIS SURROUNDINGS
ATTIC OF RECOGNITION
MAN AND WOMAN
THE SMALL SCULPTURE "GIRL"
ON THE STREET
Igor Isaev, Dmitrii Demidenko
THE FIRE HYDRANT
Kalle Brolin, Kristina Muntzing
THE WATERFALL HERACLES' BOLT
V.I.P. (Very Interesting Person)
NATASHA POTERYASHINA. Inteview
TO BE IN THE MOOD FOR PACKING
Dmitrii Bulatov, Pavel Savel'ev
ACEPHALUS: OPTICAL MODELS
LIGHT THE CRYSTALS OF KALININGRAD!
THE BRIDGE THAT THE "RUSSIANS COULDN'T PULL DOWN"
THE ROAD TO BERLIN: FROM EPIC TO BANAL. Interview with Valerii Bugrov
HOAR-STONES AND BOUNDARY SYMBOLS
MUSCOVITES ARE HANGING
BEFORE THE CITY
BASTIONS IN DIAMONDS AND EMERALDS
Avenir Ovsyanov / Kaliningrad, Russia
They vouchsafed such precious stones were part of the first Koenigsberg citadel, which was located where the goods station now stands. It was demolished before World War I in accordance with a decision of the city magistrate, but its gates remain standing to the present day at 39 Portovaya Street.
The prehistory of the citadel is as follows. The territory of East Prussia was an arena for war operations between Sweden and Poland during the first third of the 17th century. This was a flagrant violation of its sovereignty. Being afraid of the extension of this arena of war, the citizens of Altstadt, Lobenicht and Kneiphof encircled their territories with a defending wall and moat in 1626. This project was designed by a professor of Koenigsberg University, the astronomer and architect Johann Strauss (1590-1630). Count Abraham von Dohna (1590-1630) and the building master-land surveyor Konrad Burk (d. 1652) supervised the construction project.
By the middle of the 17th century 26 bastions, 8 semi-bastions and 9 main gates had been built around the three cities. Unfortunately, all that remains of what had been a grandiose structure in its day are some paltry vestiges. Now only fragments of the former walls are visible along Olshtinskaya Street, at the Brandenburg Gates and along Gvardeyskiy Prospect, where the F.B. Bessel Observatory was located.
It might seem that the Prussian regents Elector Georg Wilhelm (1619-1640) and the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm (1640-1688) did not need to worry about the safety of their boundaries after the construction of this defensive wall, but this was not the case. The most important component part of the wall, a citadel, was missing.
The Order Castle of Koenigsberg, which had long been considered a citadel and symbol of might, had lost its military significance by that time, as it failed to meet the demands of the epoch of fire-arms. Once again, the mathematicians of Koenigsberg University sat down at the drawing table. The best project was presented by the court architect and mathematician Christian Otter. He also found a location for its disposal in the western part of the defensive wall, where the Pregel River crossed it. According to Otter "here the neighbors won't get in without first knocking at the door and rioters will not make use of the fortification." Everything promised to be much better, but the best country palace of Elector Friedrich Wilhelm occupied the location proposed by Otter. Long debates, proposed substitutes, and various negotiations began. Otter's point of view finally won. The Elector, noting that "it's better to lose a palace rather than a prince's throne," graciously allowed the start of construction work.
The citadel, called Friedrichsburg, was built in 1657. Its rock and earth angle bastions were given the names of precious stones and materials - EMERALD, RUBY, DIAMOND, PEARL. The central building of the citadel was enclosed by a moat connected to the Pregel. Casernes, depots, arsenals, workshops, a commandant's office, two prisons and a chapel were built in the courtyard of the citadel. And it all sank into oblivion. But at that time some very important events took place there, events connected to Russian history as well. For example, Lieutenant Yorck von Wartenburg, the future Field Marshal and organizer of the Territorial Army against the Napoleoni and an ally of Russia in the European liberation campaign (1813-1815), served a sentence there for disobedience. The Russian Tsar Peter I visited Koenigsberg and the Friedrichsburg Citadel in 1697 under the fictitious name of a Cossack sergeant of Preobrazhenskii Regiment, Piotr Mikhailov. Here he studied fortifications and familiarized himself with the organization of the engineering process. Soon after Peter the Great's return to Russia, construction of a citadel and forts in the image and likeness of Koenigsberg's Friedrichsburg Citadel began and the first military-engineering school was founded on Kotlin Island.
South of the Friedrichsburg Citadel a famous "philosophical path" ran; the great citizen of Koenigsberg Immanuel Kant used to walk along this path. Friedrichsburg Citadel with its "precious" bastions never conducted military operations but was often on a war footing. This occurred during the Swedish-Polish wars of the 17th-18th centuries and during the first part of World War I, when Russian Cossack horse patrols appeared in the suburbs of Koenigsberg.
Nevertheless, the Friedrichsburg cannons fired more than once - but with blank cartridges. Coronations of kings and significant dates were celebrated by cannon salutes. On 18 January 1701 a great many Friedrichsburg cartridges were fired on the coronation day, when Koenigsberg became the residence of King Friedrich I (1701-1713). The citadel is also mentioned in the Seven Years' War chronicles of 1756-1762. At that time the Russian Army, having won a number of victories over Prussian troops, seized Koenigsberg. V.V. Fermor, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, reported on the seizure of the city in a communique: "The keys of the local government, Friedrichsburg Citadel and Pillau Fortress were brought to me simultaneously" (Pillau Fortress is in Baltiysk).
In his Notes, Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov describes the celebration of the Epiphany and the water consecration ceremony on the Pregel River during the era of Governor Vasiliy Iv. Suvorov (father of the future generalissimo Alexander V. Suvorov) in the following manner:
After the solemn divine service in the Steindam Catholic Church - which became Orthodox by that time - a splendid bright procession of clergy and parishioners headed for the Pregel River. That procession was the most splendid, and the Archimandrite in his luxurious chausable and precious hat and the many clergy made a spectacle worthy of the Prussian's curiosity. Since the governor himself and his chief commanders were present, they followed the procession from the church despite its remoteness, and the desire to see the governor attracted even more people. During the submergence of the cross under water cannons placed on the river bank and on Friedrichsburg fortress opened fire and a thrice-repeated volley was fired from smaller guns, which made a great impression on the people.
It is known from some literary sources that the Don Cossack Emelian Pugachev, commander of a small detachment, left his trace in the history of the citadel of "precious stones" during the Seven Years' War. He was responsible for arresting recruiters for King Friedrich II's army (at that time it was conducting military operations against the Russian Army) in Koenigsberg and its suburbs, and sending them to the Friedrichsburg prison casemates. However, some authors of regional lore publications express doubt about Pugachev's sojourn in Koenigsberg on the grounds that he was too young at that time, possibly only 15 years old. This doubt arouse because during his interrogation in the city Yaitsk in September 1774, Pugachev had declared: "I am 32 years old." During a second interrogation in Moscow he provided another figure: 34. Who knows, if a third interrogtion has been conducted, would the numbers 38 or 40 have appeared? Then it would have turned out that he was in his early twenties at the time of the Seven Year's War, and this is the age of the real Cossack.
Bronze mortars taken from bastions of Friedrichsburg Citadel during the Seven Years' War became trophies. At present they are in the St Petersburg Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Communication Forces at the Peter and Paul Fortress. In 1807 Koenigsberg was occupied by French troops. Their garrison was billeted in the Friedrichsburg citadel. By the middle of the 19th century the citadel became part of the second defensive bypass (which has survived to the present day) and began to be called "fort." At that time its new gates were built, the author of their front elevation was the Supreme Secret Building Councilor Friedrich August Stueler.
On the eve of World War I, extensive building in the city, a land shortage and the huge expenses of the city council in reclaiming fortification structures from the military resulted in a decision to demolish the Friedrichsburg Citadel and to construct a goods station in its place. But those responsible for the demolition could not bring themselves to pull down the gate, as it was a historical monument to engineering creativity, to military architecture, and to building art.
Unfortunately, the Neo-Gothics do not pay any attention to this most valuable architectural monument. It remains ill-fatedly among tasteless and clumsy buildings, plain storehouses and parking lots. Indifferent to beauty, art and history, the citadel maintains a deathly-still reproach. We continue to hope that this architectural miracle won't sink into oblivion but will be restored, reconstructed and will rank among the more significant objects on the local tourist route.
Translation by N.Shtock